What is Linux?

By derivative work:
      thumperward (talk)Linus_Torvalds.jpeg: Unknown photographer who
      sold rights to the picture to linuxmag.com —
      Linus_Torvalds.jpeg, CC BY-SA 3.0,
      https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4703850Linux is a UNIX® clone OS based on Minix, created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds from the University of Helsinki. Torvalds controls all changes and releases of the Linux kernel.

For close to three decades, Linux has been one of the most commonly used and most reliable OS for servers in the market, no matter what paid third-party reports that are plaguing the internet indicate.

Most Linux distributions (distros) include a collection of programs that run on the Linux kernel like X, KDE, GNOME, other desktop environments, LibreOffice and various codecs. Under the Linux name, you can get RHEL (paid subscription, enterprise licensing), Fedora, CentOS, Ubuntu (my distribution of choice), Mandriva, Debian, Slackware and many others tailored to your needs and/or desires. In the past, you could buy the disks for any distribution from the developers or third-party vendors. Nowadays you would most likely download the distribution (distro) in a live .ISO or .IMG file that can be burnt to a USB drive.

Installing Linux:

Before trying to install Linux, get a full inventory of what your computer has. In the past, you might have had to help the installer recognize the hardware. Nowadays the installer takes care of most the configuration (config).

Since most distributions are live, you can boot into the OS and test it before install it. If you decide to install it, there is usually a shortcut on the desktop that calls the installer. You could also reboot and select to install it and sit back. The only thing you would have to decide is if you want to format the whole drive or share it with another OS.

In the past, you were advised to assign twice the RAM as /swap. Nowadays new hardware and versions of Linux do not need this rule of thumb anymore. As mentioned before, you can now sit back and relax.

There are still distributions for total nerds that demand you to compile each file in the installation like Slackware (one of the original seven distributions) and Arch Linux to create a tailored installation for your hardware with only the drivers and other libraries needed (no bloat, small installation). For more information, you can visit DistroWatch to see what distributions are new and are the trendy for about an hour — very similar to Windows.

Single-Board Computers:

Some vendors have started to offer single-board computer (SBC) units. For example, the Raspberry Pi Foundation released its Raspberry Pi 1 Model A in February of 2012. After several generations with a price tag under $50, several projects have used Raspberry Pi hardware like Kano (2013), which designed a system for children to learn how to build computers and laptops as well as to code. Most of these SBC units run their own tailored Linux distributions.