What is Chrome?
Google Chrome, developed and controlled by Google, may refer to
either the web browser or the OS that uses the latter web browser
as its GUI. Chrome OS is intended for
laptops (not intended for desktops), which Google markets under
the name Chromebook. Just like Google's portable OS, Android, it is also based on Linux.
Although the OS is
open source, users only
have access to personal files and no access to system files,
especially the kernel. Chrome OS mostly runs web applications
making it basically a thin client — except for multimedia
with several (if not all) codecs, camera and daemons.
Running Chrome OS (stable channel only) demands the user to
completely trust Google as it controls all aspects of the OS
including and perhaps not limited to updates, which is perfect for
users. As a matter of fact, all applications are only accessible
through the Chrome Web Store and there is little to no risk of
viruses or other malware.
As of version 53 released on September 2016,
Google Chrome can run a Google Play, which allows users install
Chrome OS has a limited shell in user mode by the
autest [-scheduled] — Trigger an
auto-update. To fake a scheduled update check use
authpolicy_debug <level> — Set
authpolicy daemon debugging level
<level> can be 0 (quiet), 1
(taciturn), 2 (chatty), or 3 (verbose).
battery_firmware <info|check|update> —
info: Query battery info.
check: Check whether the AC adapter is
connected. Also check whether the battery firmware is the
update: Trigger battery firmware update.
battery_test [<test length>] — Tests
battery discharge rate for given number of seconds. Without
an argument, defaults to 300 seconds.
bt_console [<agent capability>] —
Enters a Bluetooth debugging console. Optional argument
specifies the capability of a pairing agent the console will
provide; see the Bluetooth Core specification for valid
chaps_debug [start|stop|<log_level>] —
Sets the chapsd logging level. No arguments will
start verbose logging.
connectivity — Shows connectivity status.
connectivity help for more details
cryptohome_status — Get human-readable status
information from cryptohomed.
dmesg [-d|-k|-r|-t|-u|-x] — Display kernel
dump_emk — Show the EMK (Enterprise Machine
enroll_status [--mode] [--domain] [--realm]
[--user] — Displays device enrollment
exit — Exit crosh.
ff_debug [<tag_expr>] [-list_valid_tags]
[-reset] — Add and remove flimflam debugging
tags. ff_debug help for more details.
free [options] — Display free/used memory
help [command] — Display general help, or
details for a specific command.
help_advanced — Display the help for more
advanced commands, mainly used for debugging.
meminfo — Display detailed memory statistics
memory_test — Performs extensive memory
testing on the available free memory.
modem <command> [args...] — Interact
with the 3G modem. Run modem help for detailed
modem_set_carrier carrier-name — Configures
the modem for the specified carrier.
network_diag [-date] [-flimflam] [-link] [-show-macs]
[-wifi][-wifi-mon] <host> — A function that
performs a suite of network diagnostics. Saves a copy of the
output to your Downloads directory.
network_logging <wifi | cellular | ethernet |
reset> — A function that enables a predefined
set of tags useful for debugging the specified device. Can
be used incrementally, then reset to default with the
p2p_update [enable|disable] [--num-connections]
[--show-peers] — Enables or disables the
peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing of updates over the local
network. This will both attempt to get updates from other
peers in the network and share the downloaded updates with
them. Run this command without arguments to see the current
state. Additional switches will display number of
connections and P2P peers.
ping [-4] [-6] [-c count] [-i interval] [-n] [-s
packetsize] [-W waittime] <destination> —
Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to a network host.
If <destination> is gw then the next
hop gateway for the default route is used. Default is to use
IPv4 [-4] rather than IPv6 [-6] addresses.
rlz < status | enable | disable > —
Enable or disable RLZ. See this site for details:
rollback — Attempt to rollback to the
previous update cached on your system. Only available on
non-stable channels and non-enterprise enrolled devices.
Please note that this will powerwash your device.
route [-4] [-6] — Display the routing tables.
Default is to show IPv4 [-4] rather than IPv6
set_apn [-c] [-n <network-id>] [-u
<username>] [-p <password>] <apn>
— Set the APN to use when connecting to the
network specified by <network-id>. If
<network-id> is not specified, use the
network-id of the currently registered network. The
-c option clears the APN to be used, so
that the default APN will be used instead.
set_arpgw <true | false> — Turn on
extra network state checking to make sure the default
gateway is reachable.
set_cellular_ppp [-c] [-u <username>] [-p
<password>] — Set the PPP username
and/or password for an existing cellular connection. If
neither -u nor -p is provided, show the
existing PPP username for the cellular connection.
The -c option clears any existing PPP
username and PPP password for an existing cellular
set_time [<time string>] — Sets the
system time if the the system has been unable to get it from
the network. The <time string> uses the
format of the GNU coreutils date command.
set_wake_on_lan <true | false> —
Enable or disable Wake on LAN for Ethernet devices. This
command takes effect after re-connecting to Ethernet and is
not persistent across system restarts.
storage_test_1 — Performs a short offline
storage_test_2 — Performs an extensive
swap [ enable <size (MB)> | disable | start | stop
| status | set_margin <discard threshold (MB)> |
set_extra_free <amount (MB)> | set_min_filelist
<amount (MB)> ] — Manage the system
/swap files. The enable/disable options update the
config files settings and will take effect at the next boot.
The start/stop options will turn /swap on/off
immediately, but leave the config files settings alone (so
next boot will revert back). Warning: If /swap is
heavily used, then turning it off might cause the system to
hang while the kernel tries to release pages and free up
memory. In some extreme situations, this can take a long
time to finish. The set_margin option changes the
low-memory warning margin immediately and persistently to
the chosen amount (in MiB). A value of 0, or the
string default, restore the default behavior. The
current value is shown with swap status. Similarly,
the set_min_filelist and set_extra_free
change obscure kernel parameters (which are similarly named)
in the same way.
syslog <message> — Logs a message to
syslog (the system log daemon).
time_info — Returns the current
synchronization state for the time service.
top — Run top.
tpm_status — Prints TPM (Trusted Platform
Module) status information.
tracepath [-4] [-6] [-n] <destination>[/port]
— Trace the path/route to a network host. Default is
to trace IPv4 [-4] rather than IPv6 [-6]
u2f_flags <u2f | g2f>[,verbose] — Set
flags to override the second-factor authentication daemon
u2f: Always enable the standard U2F mode even if not
set in device policy.
g2f: Always enable the U2F mode plus some additional
verbose: Increase the daemon logging verbosity in
uname [-a|-s|-n|-r|-v|-m|-p|-i|-o] —
Display system info
update_over_cellular [enable|disable] —
Enables or disables the auto updates over cellular networks.
Run without arguments to see the current state.
upload_crashes — Uploads available crash
reports to the crash server.
upload_devcoredumps [enable|disable] — Enable
or disable the upload of devcoredump reports.
uptime — Display uptime/load info
vmstat [-a|-d|-f|-m|-n|-s|-w] [delay [count]]
— Report virtual memory statistics
wifi_power_save < status | enable | disable >
— Enable or disable WiFi power save mode. This command
is not persistent across system restarts.
[--list_valid_level] [--reset] — Set
wpa_supplicant debugging level. wpa_debug
help for more details.
The latter was taken from
Installing Chrome OS:
There is no OS installation. Google does not offer any medium
to install the OS and all updates are pushed only by Google. In
other words, Google has taken an
distribution of Linux (currently based on Gentoo,
including the Portage repository) and closed it in the name of
Nonetheless in case of extreme errors, there is a local utility
that resets the system to factory specifications (
from an on-board ROM chip called POWERWASH. Another
alternative only when suggested by the Chromebook manufacturer is
to restore the OS creating a recovery USB flash drive and booting
from it. In the latter scenario, you need to contact the
manufacturer for specific instructions.
If you are really interested in installing Chrome OS, you could
check out third-party operating systems forked from Chrome OS
NayuOS, which is designed to only work on